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Linux Shell脚本规范之"set -e"的作用

2019 年 08 月 01 日 • 阅读: 144 • 运维技术阅读设置

executing-code-after-an-error-occurs-with-bash-when-using-set-e-3f66082e74468b30c7ca0d7ef795179fa611fec7f2edc7b100c158f288edbe0a.jpg

如果您以前从未听说过或使用过set -e,那么现在可以添加到Bash脚本中,告诉Bash如果脚本的任何部分抛出错误,将立即退出。

#!/bin/bash

set -e

command 1
command 2
...

exit 0

Every script you write should include set -e at the top. This tells bash that it should exit the script if any statement returns a non-true return value. The benefit of using -e is that it prevents errors snowballing into serious issues when they could have been caught earlier. Again, for readability you may want to use set -o errexit.

你写的每个脚本都应该在文件开头加上set -e,这句语句告诉bash如果任何语句的执行结果不是true则应该退出。这样的好处是防止错误像滚雪球般变大导致一个致命的错误,而这些错误本应该在之前就被处理掉。如果要增加可读性,可以使用set -o errexit,它的作用与set -e相同。

Using -e gives you error checking for free. If you forget to check something, bash will do it for you. Unfortunately it means you can't check $? as bash will never get to the checking code if it isn't zero. There are other constructs you could use:

使用-e帮助你检查错误。如果你忘记检查(执行语句的结果),bash会帮你执行。不幸的是,你将无法检查$?,因为如果执行的语句不是返回0bash将无法执行到检查的代码。你可以使用其他的结构:

command
if [ "$?"-ne 0]; then 
    echo "command failed"; 
    exit 1; 
fi 

could be replaced with

能够被代替为

command || { echo "command failed"; exit 1; } 

or

或者

if ! command; then
     echo "command failed"; 
    exit 1; 
fi 

What if you have a command that returns non-zero or you are not interested in its return value? You can use command || true, or if you have a longer section of code, you can turn off the error checking, but I recommend you use this sparingly.

如果你有一个命令返回非0或者你对语句执行的结果不关心,那你可以使用command || true,或者你有一段很长的代码,你可以关闭错误检查(不使用set -e),但是我还是建议你保守地使用这个语句。

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